AFR 190. Introduction to African American Studies (3 hours)
Prerequisite: one semester of FYS or the equivalent.
This course is designed to help students understand the academic models, approaches and methodologies that characterize African American Studies. In this course, students will become aware of how the African American experience has been defined and researched from an interdisciplinary perspective including literature, religion, sociology, anthropology, psychology, education, folklore, science and music. This course is required for the Africana Studies major and minor.

AFR 210. Civil Rights and the Black American (3 hours)
The development of civil rights of black Americans from slavery to the present. Consideration will be given to political, social, economic, and philosophical forces that shaped federal and state law and to the legal doctrine embodied in various judicial decisions and legislation in such areas as education, voting, unemployment, and public facilities. The characteristics of the legislative and judicial processes will also receive attention.

AFR 230. Religion and the American Black Experience (3 hours)
A consideration of traditional Christian, secularized, and other religious manifestations of black culture in America, with emphasis upon the modern period.

AFR 295. Social Inequality(3 hours)
(Same as SOC 295)
Prerequisite: one semester of FYS or the equivalent.
This course is designed to help students understand the theoretical base for the social inequalities that manifest themselves among the ethnic minority groups in America. In this course, students will become aware of the nature of social differences in American society and investigate a number of current theories that examine the basis for these differences.

AFR 300. Special Topics in Africana Studies (3 hours)
Prerequisite: AFR 190.
A study of some significant topic not available through other departmental course offerings. Topics will be announced in advance. Students may take this course no more than twice for credit.

AFR 324. Sub-Saharan Africa to Independence (3 hours)
(Same as HIS 324)
A study of sub-Saharan Africa before and during imperialism, with an emphasis on social and cultural history. Literature, anthropology, and sociology are used to examine the effects of European rule on African cultures.

AFR 330. Race and Politics(3 hours)
(Same as POL 330)
This course explores the unique political experiences of racial minorities with particular emphasis on both traditional (e.g., voting, office holding, and lobbying) and non-traditional (e.g., riots/protests, music, mass movements) efforts to gain political stamina. The course will focus on the quality of minority political leadership, ideology, participation, representation, and strategies for empowerment.

AFR 345. Environmental Justice(3 hours)
(Same as EES/POL/SOC 345)
This course examines the impact of institutional racism on environmental and health policies, industrial practices, government regulations and rule making, enforcement, and overall quality of life in people-of-color communities. The course will examine the nexus between environmental protection and civil rights, and the impact of the environmental justice national environmental groups.

AFR 351. Black Philosophical Perspective (3 hours)
An examination of the ideas and influence of black thinkers and leaders throughout the world. Writings of such figures as Fanon, Carmichael, Garvey, Nkrumah, King, Booker T.Washington, Dubois, Malcolm X, and Douglass will be compared and contrasted.

AFR 356. The Civil War and Reconstruction (3 hours)
(Same as HIS 356)
The causes of the Civil War, the problems of the nation in wartime, and an inquiry into new interpretations of Reconstruction history.

AFR 359. African American Literature: Beginnings to 1965 (3 hours)
(Same as ENG 359)
A survey of classic writings in African American literature presented in their historical contexts. The course includes essays analyzing the political and social status of African Americans at various points during the period and representative works by major poets and fiction writers. Reading lists vary from year to year, but generally include such authors as Brown, Chestnut, Harper, the Grimkes, Larsen, Bontemps, DuBois, Washington, Harlem Renaissance writers, Ellison, and writers of the early civil rights era.

AFR 360. African American Literature: 1965 to Present (3 hours)
(Same as ENG 360)
A chronological study of the development of African American literature since 1965. The course attempts to place African American literature in the context of world and American literature by examining prevalent themes and traditions as presented in fiction, poetry, and drama. Reading lists vary from year to year, but generally include such authors as Wright, Baldwin, Morrison, Angelou, Sanchez, Baraka, McMillan, Walker, and Wideman.

AFR 361. The Old South(3 hours)
(Same as HIS 361)
The development of Southern culture, with emphasis on the social, economic, and cultural life. Some attention is given to political problems.

AFR 362. The New South(3 hours)
(Same as HIS 362)
The South from Reconstruction to the present, with emphasis on the New South movement, agrarian unrest, and the impact of liberalism in the twentieth century.

AFR 363. African American History (3 hours)
(Same as HIS 363)
An overview of the African American experience with emphasis on the following topics: African heritage; life under slavery; conditions among free blacks during the antebellum period; actions of blacks during the Civil War and Reconstruction and reactions to the rise of virulent white racism after Reconstruction; and the roots, achievements, and transformation of the civil rights movement.

AFR 389. The Black Woman(3 hours)
(Same as WGS 389)
An historical and literary examination of the black woman and her role in American culture.

AFR 490. Supervised Practical Research: A Field Project (3 hours)
This course requires that the advanced student attempt to solve a limited problem in human relations by use of knowledge gained in course-work and by employment of existing community resources and agencies.

AFR 495. Senior Seminar in Africana Studies (3 hours)
A course designed to fulfill the exit requirement for students majoring in Africana Studies. Open as well to AFR minors and other students with senior standing in the College of Liberal Arts. Emphasizing supervised research projects, this seminar enables students to compare methodologies and perspectives, to examine specific problems in Africana Studies, and to sharpen their skills as researchers and writers. This course is required for the Africana Studies major.